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NIMAS Exemplar 4: Mathematics


The content of this exemplar has been developed for the purpose of creating exemplar files.These files should not be re-posted to other sites, nor may they be sold for commercial purposes. Organizations wishing to make this content available to others may link to this page in order to obtain the most current versions. Questions about this exemplar should be addressed to

First posted on 05/05/06. Last Updated on 02/25/09.

Note: MathML 3 is now the preferred way to represent mathematical content in NIMAS 1.1 filesets. Please see NIMAS Exemplar 12: MathML 3 for additional information. 

Baseline NIMAS 1.1 Exemplar

The baseline NIMAS files comprise the basic NIMAS 1.1 fileset that would be submitted by an educational publisher. NIMAS 1.1 is based on the DAISY 2005 DTD; publishers and other producers are encouraged to use full DAISY mark-up wherever possible.

This exemplar includes the following:

  • NIMAS 1.1-compliant XML content file
  • OEBPS 1.2-compliant package file (NIMAS OPF file)
  • -.pdf file of title page
  • images

Download NIMAS 1.1 Exemplar 4

Please refer to Creating NIMAS Files for tips on creating NIMAS filesets.

Note about Images

Images provided with baseline filesets are 300 dpi as required by the Standard, and 72 dpi images are provided with X-/HTML and HTML extension-only filesets since they may be more appropriate for some uses. Simply swap out the images folder from one set to another if a different dpi is desired.

Comment about the Exemplar

This exemplar demonstrates one NIMAS-conformant presentation of mathematical content. Please note the following regarding mark-up of math and math-related content:

MathML (Mathematical Markup Language)

XML-based markup language used to display mathematical content.

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National Instructional Materials Accessibility Standard (NIMAS)

A technical standard used to produce XML-based source files for print-based educational materials.

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Digital Accessible Information System (DAISY)

Technical standard for producing accessible and navigable multimedia documents.

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Document Type Definition (DTD)

Discrete set of XML tags, targeted at a particular type of application.

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XML (EXtensible Markup Language)

Universal format for structured documents and data. Set of rules, guidelines, and conventions for designing text formats for data.

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PDF (Portable Document Format)

Universal computer file type used to exchange and view documents on any computer with Adobe Acrobat or Foxit Reader software installed.

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Currently, a standard, problem-free way to treat mathematical content in terms of mark-up has not yet been developed. It has been proposed that, as an interim solution, math equations and other symbolic content be presented as images.When creating math content images, it is crucial to distinguish between content such as in-line equations, that are math content per se, and images, such as graphs, that just so happen to contain math content. The suggested best-practice for accomplishing this distinction is to code true math content with the notation EQ in their image filenames to indicate that an image represents math content. Images such as charts and illustrations that contain or are about math should be coded as any other image would be.

from Creating NIMAS Files

Supplementary Files

The supplementary files included here are not part of the required NIMAS fileset.

HTML Extension Fileset

This fileset includes an HTML extension file that has been converted from its XML version by changing its extension (and a css stylesheet has been added); it is not intended as a true HTML version and should not be used as such. It is provided as a visual representation of the XML file only.

The HTML extension fileset includes the following:

  • NIMAS 1.1 HTML ext.-only content file
  • images
  • css stylesheet

Download HTML Extension Fileset

XHTML Fileset

This XHTML fileset validates to the XHTML 1.0 Transitional DTD. Its mark-up differs from that of the other files.

The XHTML fileset includes the following:

  • XHTML content file
  • images
  • css stylesheet

Download XHTML Fileset

NIMAS Conversion Tool HTML Version

The NIMAS Conversion Tool version is a student-ready output created with Exemplar 4's Baseline 1.1 XML fileset as its source and using the NIMAS Conversion Tool to create an HTML output. The NIMAS Conversion Tool converts NIMAS-conformant XML filesets into leveled XML files and/or into leveled HTML files that can be opened and viewed in a browser.It includes image support, TOC generation, and MathML support. To learn more and to download the Tool, go to the NIMAS Conversion Tool page.

Download NIMAS Conversion Tool HTML Version

Cascading Style Sheet (CSS)

Provides the capacity to separate the layout and style of a web page from the content.

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